Yes, we do need sleep. All animals, be they mammal,amphibian, aquatic, etc. , need some form of sleep in order to rejuvenate theirbody and/or mind. Without sleep our bodies tend to experience some type ofmental or physical malfunctions. Some of us human beings can even become downright incapable of proper social function.
In other words, cranky frustratedemotional nutcases. So, sleep does play an important role in our dailyfunctions, and no matter what we must fit it into our lives/schedule. Edisonslight bulb can be considered one of the major technological “curses” of themodern age, says sleep researcher Harvey Moldofsky, chief psychiatrist atToronto Western Hospital. Edison believed that his light bulb would liberate usfrom the night and in the process transform our lives. The fact that the lightbulb served as a reliable, controlled was to, banish the night, did not act asperhaps Edison hoped it would.
Yet, it helped banish our need for sleep. Andwith this a change in our sleeping patterns. This is one of the ultimate causesof sleep problems. Insomnia is the perception or complaint of inadequate orpoor-quality sleep because of one or more of the following: difficulty sleeping,waking up too early, unrefreshing sleep, waking frequently through the night. When one has Insomnia it is difficult to initiate and/or maintain sleep.
Somebelieve that Insomnia is not a disorder, it is a symptom that often indicatedother problems. Other diagnosis, hold that Insomnia is the most common of allsleep disorders and perhaps the most frequent health complaint after pain. Severe cases can disrupt social and occupational function and is associated withdepression, fatigue, and anxiety. There are different types of Insomnia whichaffect our sleep patterns in many different ways. Types of Insomnia are:? Sleep Onset Insomnia (delayed sleep Phase Syndrome): a disorder inwhich the major sleep episode is delayed in relation to the desires clock timewhich one wishes to be awakened.
? Idiopathic Insomnia: A life longinability to obtain adequate sleep that is due to an abnormality of theneurological control of the sleep-wake system. ? PsychophysiologicalInsomnia: A disorder or somatized tension (conversion of anxiety into physicalsymptoms) and learned sleep – preventing associated with results in a complaintof Insomnia and associated decreased functioning during wakefulness. ?Childhood Insomnia (limit-setting Sleep Disorder): Primarily a childhooddisorder that is characterized by the inadequate enforcement of bed times by acaretaker with resultant stalling or refusal to go to bed at the appropriatetime. ? Food Allergy Insomnia: A disorder of initiating and maintainingsleep due to an allergic response to food allergens. ? EnvironmentalInsomnia (Environmental Sleep disorder): A sleep disorder disturbance due to adisturbing environmental factor that causes a complaint of either Insomnia orexcessive sleepiness.
? Transient Insomnia (Adjustment Sleep Disorder):Represents sleep disturbance temporally related to acute stress, conflict orenvironmental change causing emotional agitation. ? Periodic Insomnia(Non 24-Hour Sleep-Wake Syndrome): Consists of a chronic steady patternconsisting of 1-2 hour daily delays in sleep onset and wake times in anindividual living in society. ? Altitude Insomnia: An acute Insomniausually accompanied by headaches, loss of appetite, and fatigue, that occursfollowing ascent to high altitudes. ? Hypnotic-Dependency Insomnia(Hypnotic Dependent Sleep Disorder): Characterized by Insomnia or excessivesleepiness that is associated with tolerance to or withdrawal from hypnoticmedications. ? Stimulant Dependent Sleep Disorder: Characterized by areduction of sleepiness or suppression of sleep by central stimulants andresultant alterations in wakefulness following drug abstinence. ? AlcoholDependent Insomnia (Alcohol Dependent Sleep Disorder): Characterized bythe sustained ingestion of sleep onset by the sustained ingestion of alcoholthat is used for its hypnotic effect.
? Toxins Induced SleepDisorders: Characterized by either Insomnia or excessive sleepiness produced bypoisoning with heavy metals or organic toxins. Transient and intermittentInsomnia generally occur in people who are temporarily experiencing eitherstress, environmental noise, extreme temperatures, change in ones environment,and sleep/wake schedule problems. Sleep is the way the body rests and allows themind to slow down and relax. Sleep is a distinct state of mind and body in whichthe body is deeply at rest, the metabolism is lowered, and the mind becomesunconscious to the outside world.
The sleeping mind does not become unconsciousentirely; instead, it shifts the direction of consciousness from a chair besideyour body to another chair inside your dream. Aristotle proposed that thepurpose of sleep was to help the body digest food although eating a big mealbefore getting into bed is one of the worst things you can do for your rest. Sleep is not a random phenomenon but a highly structured and well organizedactivity following a cycle pattern . Two types of sleep have been identifiedrapid eye movement (REM) and non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. The durationof NREM-REM cycles is approximately 90 minutes.
, but may vary between 70 and 120minutes NREM is subdivided into four stages from stage 1 a very light sleep, tostage 4, the deepest stage of sleep. NREM sleep is also called quiet”sleep, because most physiological functions are slowed down during this periodof slumber, NREM sleep has been described as an idling brain in a moveable body. REM sleep is called paradisiacal active, or fast sleep, characterized byelectroenchgalographic (EEG) activation, muscle tone , and the onset of (thename REM) rapid eye movements during this time. Vivid hallucinatory experiencesoccur during REM sleep. With the exception of periodic muscle twitches, the bodyis essentially paralyzed during REM, which has been described as a hyperactivebrain in a paralyzed body, Delta or slow wave sleep is predominant in the firstthird of the night , where as the proportion of REM sleep may come quicker thanusual, aid delta sleep may consequently be delayed and shortened. Patterns ofsleep generally look like this: light sleep deep sleep- REM sleep_ lightsleep- deep sleep rest and restoration.
The first period of light sleeplasts about 45 minutes. There are five distinct stages of sleep. Stage 1 and 2are the majority of the night. Stage 3 and 4 are deep sleeping or “deltasleep” and rest and restoration.
Stage 5 is the dream-state, which generallyinvolves rapid eye movement or REM sleep. Several developmental changes in sleeppatterns occur over the course of life span. Total sleep time is highest ininfancy and gradually declines, leveling off in young adulthood. There are manydifferent causes for insomnia that affect diverse groups of people in lots ofways. Causes for insomnia may range from the psychological to psyiological.
Causes of chronic insomnia associated with psychological problems can be deeplyrooted in stress, anxiety and /or depression. Insomnia associated with medicalproblems can be caused by a variety of things including: anemia, asthma, kidneydysfunction, diabetes, HIV, and a variety of medication side effects. Insomniacan also be due to poor eating habits, caffeine, and lack of exercise. Snoring,not breathing, and Gasping for air are problems some people have when they areunable to sleep and breath at the same time which causes sleep apnea.
Legtwitches are a problem some experience when their body suddenly jerks and wakesthem as they are first falling asleep. Almost any sleeping pill, if takencontinuously, will cause insomnia. Sleep can be affected by ones individualdifferences, prior sleep history, circadian rhythms, drugs, life styles, andpsychopathology. Caffeine and nicotine are both central nervous systemstimulants, and as such are sleep-disrupting substances. Insomnia can also bedue to poor eating habits, caffeine, and lack of exercise. Medications that areprescribed bed for sleep can disrupt or eliminate the sleep are: Doral, Halcion.
Restoril , valium, and Xanax. Antihistamines can also cause sleep depravation. Vitamins and minerals such as B6, niacin amide, calcium, magnesium, orantioxidants. Life stress factors also cause significant variations in sleephabits from one individual to the next.
Work and leisure activities, the use ofalcohol and drugs, travel social and family obligations all affect the abilityto get a good nights sleep. Excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue can be onecharacteristic of narcolepsy and hypersomnia . Insomnia can adversely affectboth physical and mental health. Some people suffering from Insomnia depend toomuch time in bed unsuccessfully trying to sleep. Diagnosis Diagnosis is based ontwo symptoms: 1) the perceived difficulty of initiating and/or maintaining sleepor feeling unrested despite an adequate amount of sleep or 2) daytime tirednessor porsocialor work performance as a consequence of impaired sleep. Insomnia isnot defined by the number of hours of sleep a person gets or how long it takesto fall asleep.
Identifying behaviors that may worsen Insomnia and stopping (orreducing) them. Normative developmental changes in sleep patterns are outlinedand distinguished from pathological sleeplessness. Sleep problems are also morecommon among the widowed, divorced and separated and among people with lowincomes and low socio-economic status. Certain individuals are more likely toexperience Insomnia are the elderly, females, and those persons with a historyof depression.
Twenty-five percent of adults and fifty percent of seniorcitizens have insomnia problems. Insomnia is also a problem that is prevalentamong people write HIV/ Aids. When loss of sleep impairs a persons ability tofunction properly during the day, it may indicate a potential problem. Insomniamay cause problems during the day, such as tiredness, a lack of energy,difficulty concentrating, and irritability. The main consequence of sleepdepravation in otherwise normal sleepers are sleepless, performance impairment,and mood alteration.
The severity of the effects of sleep depravation depend onthe effects sleep loss is partial, total, acute, or chronic. Insomniacs havemore difficulty coping with minor irritations and report less enjoyment offamily and relationships; they also feel less well physically. About one thirdof the adult population is affected by insomnia each year. Insomnia affects20-40% of all adults, mostly women and the elderly.
According to the NationalSurvey of Psychotherapeutic Drug Use , about 35% of the adult populationisaffected by insomnia during the course of a year. The National Institute ofMental Health (NIMH) Epidomiologic Catchment Area study yielded a 10. 2% of thepopulation on a chronic basis. Surveys indicate that one-third.
” About 15to18 percent suffer from percent suffer from intractable sleep difficulties thatare perceived to impediments to them life says Harvey Moldofsky , chiefpsychologist at Toronto Western Hospital. Acute sleep loss causes fatigue anddecreases motivation administrative. Total sleep loss for more than one nightleads to micro sleep episodes intruding into wakefulness, effecting attentionspan reduction, difficulty concentrating, and performance efficiency isimpaired. As sleep loss accumulates, daytime sleepless increases, and bothcognition and behavioral deficits are exalelated.
Chronic insonmia may induceemotional distress and increase the use of psychotropic medications and the riskof substance abuse. Sleep disturbances can affect a persons life, causingsignificant psychosocial, occupational and health reprocassions. Sleep durationis low lend to lavevity . Insomnacs are move likely (5% US.
2%) to report motorvehicle accidents in which fatigue was a factor. Individuals with sleepdisturbances are move likely to display concomitent pshchological distress thanthose without sleep complaints reported by insomniacs often have a psychosomaticconnotation: thsior headaches, gadro intestinal problems, no specific aches andpains, and allergies. There is a strong relationship between sleep and emotionaldisturbances. Insomnia causes psychological distress in some individuals, andthat in those already afflicted by emotional problems, chronically disturbedsleep may only potentiate these difficulties. Reports of fatigue, tiredness, ordrowsiness almost always accompany Insomnia complaints. Sleepiness is almost adirect result of sleep depravation.
And, chronic inability to sleep willultimately lead to Insomnia or some type of sleep disorder. Insomnia encompassesa wide variety of complaints typically reflecting unsatisfactory duration,efficiency, or quality of sleep. Technology Technology used to measure and aidin the diagnosis of sleep consist of the EEG, the electro-oculogram (EOG), andthe electromyogram (EMG). The EEG records brain wave activity from the centraland occipital areas.
The EOG measures a difference of electrical potentialbetween the cornea and the retina; this difference is generated with each eyemovement. The EMG monitors muscle tone, and its main recording site is the chin. Monitoring of oxygen saturation is used in the assessment diagnosis of sleepapnea. The electrocardiogram (EKG) documents arrhythmias accompanyingrespiratory disturbances. Accompanying respiratory disturbances.
EMG monitoringof the anterior tibilias muscles is used for detection of periodic leg movementsduring sleep. Most adults need seven or eight hours of sleep a night, but someadults are ” short sleepers” and functions well and only there of fourhours. Being that the purpose of sleep could be to allow the body time to repairand rejurvenate- some find 4 to 6 hours as a sufficient amount at sleep. Sleepreduces fatigue and relieves stress and dreaming helps to clear the nervoussystems. The amount of time needed for sleep is eshonaly usaible from person toperson. The clinical significanes of insomnia is detemined according to itssevenrity, frequency, duration, and daytime sequence.
Treatment for dramicinsomia consists of: -There are many foods you may try to get est thatwould/will aid in putting you to sleep. Foods such as oats, sweet corn, rice,zawgen, tomatoes, bananas, and barely all are rich in malnutrion which helpsreduce sleep. -Lifestyle changes can also hepls you to sleep better. -Herbalremedies that as help induce sleep are Valerian roots, skull cap, passionflower, wood betony or California poppy. -Over the counter sleep medicines arenot usually recommended for the treatment of insomnia .
Though using sleepingpills without supervision of a physican for long periods of time can treatchronic insomnia. -Tayrs behavioral techniques to improve sleep, such asrehilbilation therpy, sleep restrictions therapy, and reconditioning may help. There are specific and effective technques through rehilbilation therapy thatcan reduces or eliminate anxiety and body tension. Insomnia can not be curedwithout treaty the underlying imbalance that causes it. The Association of SleepDisorders Caters was established in 1975; its purpose is to accidet clinics inthe United States and to promote professional education and the development ofstandards and guidelines for patient care. Most clinics are based in large urbanhospitals or university medical schools, usually in conjunction withsleep-research programs .
Medical experts from widely diverse fields areinvolved in sleep clinics. Psychologists and psychiatrists, internist,psycologists and specialist in disorders of the heart, lungs, brain, respiratorysystem and central nervous system are involved can givers at sleep clinics. Conclusion Insomnia can be treated if diagnosed properly and medication can begiven to aid in the elimination of the problem.